What is a Cleanroom?
Short Answer: 

A cleanroom is a controlled environment where the concentration of airborne particles is regulated to specified limits.

These rooms are crucial in various industries where even the smallest particles can compromise the quality or safety of products.

How do Cleanrooms Work?

Cleanrooms are designed to maintain extremely low levels of particulates such as dust, airborne organisms, or vaporised particles. Three essential features include Air filtration, environmental control and cleanroom garments.

Read more about this below.


1. Air Filtration

  • HEPA and ULPA Filters: Cleanrooms use High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) and Ultra-Low Penetration Air (ULPA) filters to remove particles from the air. HEPA filters can capture particles as small as 0.3 microns with 99.97% efficiency, while ULPA filters can capture even smaller particles with 99.999% efficiency.
  • Air Changes Per Hour: Cleanrooms have a high rate of air changes per hour, meaning the entire volume of air is replaced multiple times per hour to continuously remove contaminants.
  • Airflow: Cleanrooms use unidirectional (laminar) or non-unidirectional (turbulent) airflow systems to constantly sweep away particles. Laminar airflow systems use a continuous stream of HEPA-filtered air, whereas turbulent airflow systems mix the air to dilute contamination.
  • Pressure Control: Cleanrooms are maintained at a higher pressure than the surrounding environment to prevent the ingress of contaminated air. Airlocks and pressure differentials between rooms of different cleanliness levels are used to control particle contamination.

2. Environmental Control

  • Temperature and Humidity: Precise control over temperature and humidity is necessary to prevent condensation, static electricity, and microbial growth, all of which can affect product quality.

3. Cleanroom Garments

  • Personnel must wear specialised clothing, including gowns, gloves, masks, and shoe covers, to minimize the release of particles from their bodies and clothing.

What industries use cleanrooms?

Cleanrooms are utilised in various industries where even minute levels of contamination can have significant consequences. The following summarises industries that use cleanrooms, their purpose and applications.


  • Purpose: To ensure sterile production environments for medications and vaccines.
  • Applications: Manufacturing of sterile drug products, compounding pharmacies, and research laboratories.

More about Pharmaceutical Cleanrooms


  • Purpose: To prevent biological contamination and maintain aseptic conditions.
  • Applications: Production of biological products, genetic research, and cell culture labs.

More about Research Cleanrooms

 Aerospace and Defence

  • Purpose: To ensure the cleanliness of components and systems that will operate in space or other controlled environments.
  • Applications: Assembly and testing of satellites, aircraft systems, and sensitive defence equipment.

More about Defence Cleanrooms

 Medical Devices

  • Purpose: To prevent contamination of devices that will be used in or on the human body.
  • Applications: Production of pacemakers, surgical instruments, and implantable devices.

More about Medical Device Cleanrooms


  • Purpose: To ensure the cleanliness of sensitive automotive components.
  • Applications: Production of high-precision parts like airbags, sensors, and fuel injectors.

More about Automotive Cleanrooms

 Research and Development

  • Purpose: To maintain controlled environments for experiments that require low contamination levels.
  • Applications: Nanotechnology research, material science, and biomedical research.

More about Research & Development Cleanrooms

Precision Engineering

  • Purpose: To ensure that ultra-precise measurements and products are not affected by particulate matter.
  • Applications: Manufacturing of precision instruments and micro-mechanical parts.

More about Technology Cleanrooms


  • Purpose: To create a clean, aseptic environment, reducing the risk of infection and contamination.
  • Applications: Treatment Rooms, Day Case Theatre, Operating Theatre

More about Healthcare Cleanrooms

Airology offers a range of cleanrooms and laboratories

Every cleanroom application has specific requirements, which we factor into our bespoke cleanroom designs and installations. For universities, research facilities, hospitals, and private-sector manufacturing, cleanrooms can be crucial to success. As technology develops, we stay abreast of new methods, supporting clients to upgrade existing cleanrooms.

Contact Airology | Get a Cleanroom Quote

7 key decisions when creating a cleanroom environment

1. Decide how it’s to be used

2. Decide how it should be classified

3. Decide on the right environment

4. Decide what size it should be

5. Decide how impurities will be extracted or filtered

6. Decide on the right lighting condition

7. Decide how secure your facility needs to be

What our customers say…

“I have worked with Airology for several years and always found them to be reliable and responsive in regard to the servicing and maintenance of our HVAC equipment.”

Colin Welsh Orbit Group

“Throughout the project Airology provided us with guidance and their expertise to ensure that the installation met our specific requirements and was completed on time. We are delighted with our state of the art Clean Room and the professional approach and support given to us by the Airology team was invaluable.”

Andrew Stringer Managing Director, Entaco Ltd

“During the initial design and build we worked closely with Airology to create a facility that will provide one of the most comprehensive GMP stability storage and testing services in Europe. Working with Airology as the principal contractor enabled us to deliver a significant building project, on-scope, on-time and on-budget.”

Mark HammondManaging Director, Intertek Melbourn Scientific

“We have used Airology extensively to install air conditioning in Grosvenor House so wanted them to handle the M & E but we also wanted a single locally based supplier for the refurbishment contract.  Airology were able to provide a comprehensive service including the raised floor, ceilings, decoration and carpeting as well as the M & E  and the project came in on budget, on time and the quality was excellent.”

Mark RobertsManaging Director, Loxton Developments Ltd

“Airology provided us with a bespoke, managed development which has allowed us to double our production output. The service and communication which we received at all stages of the project was excellent and any impact on our production was kept to an absolute minimum. Malosa Medical would definitely recommend Airology.”

Will Stewart Operations Manager, Malosa Medical

“Airology completed our installation with a high degree of professionalism and knowledge. P3 would have no hesitation in recommending the company for similar projects.”

Simon TalbotManaging Director, P3 Medical Ltd

“We would like to thank you for the way the works were carried out to a high standard with the minimum of disruption. From concept to completion your staff were very helpful and professional throughout. We would be pleased to recommend you in the future without hesitation.”

Dr SilvaPerfect Image Consultants

“The quality of the work has been to a high standard and the people who have worked on the project have been exceptional. There were some challenges to be dealt with, but as we thought the Airology team was first class at solving the problems and kept the project to time and to budget.”

Nigel SouthernRidgeway Biologicals

“I have worked with Airology for several years and always found them to be reliable and responsive in regard to the servicing and maintenance of our HVAC equipment.”

Colin Welsh Orbit Group